The conditions for the transport of goods by sea are laid down in the transport agreement, called a Bill of Lading (B/L). It is the carrier that issues the Bill of Lading. The type of chartering agreement or charter party determines the carrier: in the case of voyage chartering it is the shipowner, in the case of time chartering and bare hull chartering it is the charterer. The Bill of Lading has three important functions: proof of receipt, proof of transport agreement and title of ownership.


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